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A 2-car D-train would have fewer seats than a 2-car Pacer. So you need at least three cars. A longer train might be made up by adding trailers — reducing acceleration and eroding the claimed advantage of improved acceleration.

Reliability in service must be questionable - the "white van" diesel is unproven in the confined space under a D78 vehicle. Most of the sample configurations have no toilets: Crawlers might be suitable for short branch lines.

I suggest parts of East Anglia and non-electrified Thames Valley branches. See how commuters in Henley, Marlow and Windsor like them. They are used to something better.

The North also deserves better. The main factor is that it is a temporary solution. Not to mention the entire fleet of Meridians and countless HSTs.

The question is this, do us in the north continue to be seperated from the south to the extreme by keeping our pacers, or do we accept a little gesture from them and accept some pretty decent trains made new inside.

The sad truth regarding the toilet issue is that if the journey time end to end is below a certain time limit there is no requirement for a toilet.

Do bare in mind however that there are some pacers knocking about that are actually now restricted to 65mph. London commuters complained endlessly about the s poor seating capacity.

As a railwayman with 13 years experience in various areas of the rail industry this is an interesting concept. Ageing rolling stock, under-used branch lines etc.

Thus the pacer was born. Love them or hate them they did, that is DID, a fantastic job and saved many of the branch lines and lowering the cost of running.

I have made no secret of my extreme dislike of the pacers. In my opinion they saved the day in the 80s and early 90s.

It however is now a shame that the north-south divide has got bigger and bigger over the last decade or so what with the amount of money being ploughed into rolling stock investment in the south, especially in the London and South-east.

It really does give us northerners the feel of total neglect and separation. However I think this D-Train concept might just save the day.

The south will actually do us a huge favour if this goes ahead. The D-Train could be the answer to us northerners prayers. This concept is almost a mirror image of 80s BR and the need for a cost effective short term solution to an inerrant problem.

In 5 or so years time there will be a massive surplus of DMUs due to the mass electrification projects. Some serious decisions will then have to be made as to which of the older 80s built rolling stock will be cost effective in remaining in service.

Like the pacers the , , , s etc. The question will need to be raised as to what will be scrapped or kept. The D-Train however will effectively be a light weight, custom built urban, interurban and country branch line unit due to the multitude of options for interior specifications.

The fact they will be new, apart from the bodyshell, bogies and motors, means that they could effectively operate for a far longer period of time than the 80s build sprinters useful lifespan.

They would ironically almost be a 21st century pacer! The light weight would seriously reduce operational costs in track access charges alone. That coupled with the advanced engines and technology to save fuel and make them as green as possible to run.

I for one hope they would be here to stay. I will however reserve some judgement until I see the finished product. Also the 15x units will need refurbishment very soon, and cannot in any event be expected to last more than 15 years, with their wholesale replacement being needed at the following franchise renewal.

New units are going to come in the end - what is the point of delaying a few of them by investing millions in these slow and controversial Crawlers?

You cannot make sensible judgements on the D Train until a prototype is in existence, these trains could turn out to be the best thing since sliced bread or total rubbish.

What we do know is that they will have decent body shells, relatively modern bogies, higher acceleration and lower top speed. All these things suggest that they may be a good train.

Overall I feel that it is a good idea but as someone said the ride quality will be awful with the fitting of secondary suspension and bearing in mind if they are limited to 60 then Pacers will be able to outstrip them at All they are doing is exasperating the problem in the sense that they are keeping the present seating layout on the D stock, why not convert them to airline style?

So tasteful Mk3s to get you home from London, with the last leg in a connecting souped up D Several people have mentioned that pacers can do 75mph.

Im not sure about class s but Im sure class s are restricted to 60mph due to safety fears. Deffo the northern ones have been restricted to 60mph for a few years now..

With the better acceleration of the D-Train, They will leave a pacer behind. The environment up on an exposed Pennine hill can be very different to a cut-and-cover London underground line.

In winter, bitterly cold and high winds; in summer, problems of solar gain! A good idea if it can be made to work reliably but why the applied front end, which adds nothing apart from weight?

The existing design is neat, fuctional and rational. Does it come up to crashworthiness standards though? Anything is better than the Rubbish Pacers that are in use now since they were designed for a maximum 20 year life whilst the D78 was designed as a platform that was and even now could be upgraded as per the above to a useful train for the next 15 years.

This is a rare example of thinking outside the box in the modern UK rail industry - as a fellow entrepreneur I applaud it.

The Southern under Herbert Walker made a habit of recycling rolling stock, which was carried on by BR in the Bournemouth electrification.

The rail industry needs this kind of independent innovation. I know the ride quality is not great but a better interior esp seats , doors etc would make a big difference.

I first saw this train newly delivered to London under ground and being tested when I was a school kid of 15years old through Elm Park Station.

I joined London Underground and passed out as a guard on then in and passed out as a driver on them in and still drive them in I do believe your getting a great train and you should get antheir 10 to 15 years use out of them as Metro camel made a good train.

So please look after them they wel do you proud. Just what we can expect for the North East.. Second hand rejects with opening doors into the saloon.

Anything that gives people new trains at a lower cost and can replace those awful pacers and have more seats and whats more produced in this country and not abroad creating more jobs must be a good thing Roll on i say and lets hopefully not wait years for them.

Routing Table When finished making your changes on this tab, click the Save Settings button to save these changes, or click the Cancel Changes button to undo your changes.

If you have If you have only If you want to disable wireless networking, select Disabled. Enter the name for your wireless network into the field.

The SSID is the network name shared among all devices in a wireless network. It must be identical for all devices in the wireless network.

It is case-sensitive and must not exceed 32 alphanumeric characters, which may be any keyboard character. Linksys recommends that you change the default SSID linksys to a unique name of your choice.

Select the appropriate channel from the list provided to correspond with your network settings. All devices in your wireless network must use the same channel in order to function correctly.

Wireless computers or clients will automatically detect the wireless channel of the Gateway. When wireless computers or clients survey the local area for wireless networks to associate with, they will detect the SSID broadcast by the Gateway.

There are two wireless security options supported by the Gateway: These are briefly discussed here. Then enter a Group Key Renewal period, which instructs the Gateway how often it should change the encryption keys.

An acronym for Wired Equivalent Privacy, WEP is an encryption method used to protect your wireless data communications.

WEP uses bit or bit keys to provide access control to your network and encryption security for every data transmission. To decode data transmissions, all devices in a network must use an identical WEP key.

Higher encryption levels offer higher levels of security, but due to the complexity of the encryption, they may decrease network performance.

To enable WEP, select 64 bits 10 hex digits or bits 26 hex digits. Make sure that the receiving device wireless computer or client is using the same key.

Instead of manually entering WEP keys, you can enter a passphrase. This passphrase is used to generate one or more WEP keys. It is case-sensitive and should not be longer than 32 alphanumeric characters.

If you want to communicate with non-Linksys wireless products or Windows XP Zero Configuration, make a note of the WEP key generated in the Key 1 field, and enter it manually in the wireless computer or client.

WEP keys enable you to create an encryption scheme for wireless network transmissions. If you are not using a Passphrase, then manually enter a set of values.

Do not leave a key field blank, and do not enter all zeroes; they are not valid key values. If you are using bit WEP encryption, the key must be exactly 10 hexadecimal characters in length.

If you are using bit WEP encryption, the key must be exactly 26 hexadecimal characters in length. Select Allow All you want all computers to have access to the wireless network.

To restrict access to the network, select Restrict Access, and then select Prevent to block access for the designated computers or Permit only to permit access for the designated computers.

Enter the MAC addresses of the computers you want to designate. Click the Refresh button to get the most up-to-date information.

To only allow Open System authentication, select Open System. For Shared Key authentication, the sender and recipient use a WEP key for both authentication and data encryption.

To only allow Shared Key authentication, select Shared Key. It is recommended that this option be left in the default Auto mode, because some clients cannot be configured for Shared Key.

The rate should be set depending on the speed of your wireless network. Select from a range of transmission speeds, or keep the default setting, Auto, to have the Gateway automatically use the fastest possible data rate and enable the Auto-Fallback feature.

Auto-Fallback will negotiate the best possible connection speed between the Gateway and a wireless client.

The Beacon Interval value indicates the frequency interval of the beacon. A beacon is a packet broadcast by the Gateway to synchronize the wireless network.

The default value is 1. A DTIM field is a countdown field informing clients of the next window for listening to broadcast and multicast messages.

Its clients hear the beacons and awaken to receive the broadcast and multicast messages. This value should remain at its default setting of It specifies the maximum size for a packet before data is fragmented into multiple packets.

If you experience a high packet error rate, you may slightly increase the Fragmentation Threshold. Setting the Fragmentation Threshold too low may result in poor network performance.

Only minor modifications of this value are recommended. If you encounter inconsistent data flow, only minor modifications are recommended.

The Gateway sends Request to Send RTS frames to a particular receiving station and negotiates the sending of a data frame. Use these features to enhance the security of your network.

Configure these settings so the Gateway will permit VPN tunnels to pass through. Some ISPs may request that you use this feature on the Gateway.

Firewall You can enable or disable the firewall, select filters to block specific Internet data types, and block anonymous Internet requests.

To use the firewall, click Enable. If you do not want to use the firewall, click Disable. To enable proxy filtering, click the checkbox.

A cookie is data stored on your computer and used by Internet sites when you interact with them. To enable cookie filtering, click the checkbox.

Java is a programming language for websites. If you deny Java Applets, you run the risk of not having access to Internet sites created using this programming language.

To enable Java Applet filtering, click the checkbox. ActiveX is a programming language for websites. If you deny ActiveX, you run the risk of not having access to Internet sites created using this programming language.

To enable ActiveX filtering, click the checkbox. Select Block Anonymous Internet Requests to block anonymous Internet requests or deselect it to allow anonymous Internet requests.

If you want to see activity logs for your security measures, then click the View Logs button. Click the Clear button to clear the log information.

Click the pageRefresh button to refresh the information. Click the Previous Page button to go to the previous page of information.

Click the Next Page button to move to the next page of information. You can set up Internet access policies for specific computers and block websites by URL address or keyword.

Access can be managed by a policy. Use the settings on this screen to establish an access policy after the Save Settings button is clicked.

To view all the policies, click the Summary button. Policies can be deleted from the Summary screen by selecting the policy or policies and clicking the Delete button.

To return to the Internet Access screen, click the Close button. Policies are disabled by default. To enable a policy, select the policy number from the drop-down menu, and click the radio button beside Enable.

To create an Internet Access policy: Select a number from the Internet Access Policy drop-down menu. To enable this policy, click the radio button beside Enable.

Enter a Policy Name in the field provided. Internet Policy Summary Chapter 5: The List of PCs screen will appear.

After making your changes, click the Save Settings button to apply your changes or Cancel Changes to cancel your changes.

Click the appropriate option, Deny or Allow, depending on whether you want to block or allow Internet access for the PCs you listed on the List of PCs screen.

Decide which days and what times you want this policy to be enforced. Select the individual days during which the policy will be in effect, or select Everyday.

Then enter a range of hours and minutes during which the policy will be in effect, or select 24 Hours. If you want to block websites using specific keywords, enter each keyword in a separate field next to Website Blocking by Keyword.

List of PCs 9. You can filter access to various services accessed over the Internet, such as FTP or telnet, by selecting services from the drop-down menus next to Blocked Services.

Then enter the range of ports you want to filter. Then the Port Services screen will appear. Select its protocol from the Protocol drop-down menu, and enter its range in the Port Range fields.

Then click the Add button. To modify a service, select it from the list on the right. Change its name, protocol setting, or port range.

Then click the Modify button. To delete a service, select it from the list on the right. Then click the Delete button.

When you are finished making changes on the Port Services screen, click the Apply button to save changes. If you want to cancel your changes, click the Cancel button.

To close the Port Services screen and return to the Access Restrictions screen, click the Close button. When users send this type of request to your network via the Internet, the Gateway will forward those requests to the appropriate computer.

In this section you will customize the port service for your applications. Enter the name of the application in the field provided.

Enter the External and Internal Port numbers. Select the protocol you wish to use for each application: Enter the IP Address of the appropriate computer.

Click Enabled to enable forwarding for the chosen application. Specialized Internet applications are any applications that use Internet access to perform functions such as videoconferencing or online gaming.

Some Internet applications may not require any forwarding. Enter the starting and ending numbers of the port range you wish to forward.

Click the Enable checkbox to enable forwarding for the chosen application. For this feature, the Gateway will watch outgoing data for specific port numbers.

The Gateway will remember the IP address of the computer that sends a transmission requesting data, so that when the requested data returns through the Gateway, the data is pulled back to the proper computer by way of IP address and port mapping rules.

Enter the name you wish to give each application. Enter the starting and ending port numbers of the Triggered Range. Enter the starting and ending port numbers of the Forwarded Range.

Click the Enable checkbox to enable port triggering for the chosen application. DMZ hosting forwards all the ports for one computer at the same time, which differs from Port Range Forwarding, which can only forward a maximum of 10 ranges of ports.

This feature allows one local user to be exposed to the Internet for use of a special-purpose service such as Internet gaming and videoconferencing.

To use this feature, select Enable. To disable DMZ, select Disable. To use QoS, select Enable. Otherwise, keep the default, Disable.

Depending on the settings of the QoS screen, this feature will assign information a high or low priority for the five preset applications and three additional applications that you specify.

For example, after developing the HTML pages for a website on a local machine, they are typically uploaded to the web server using FTP.

The communications protocol used to connect to servers on the World Wide Web. Its primary function is to establish a connection with a web server and transmit HTML pages to the client web browser.

It allows a user at a terminal or computer to log onto a remote device and run a program. The standard e-mail protocol on the Internet. A standard mail server commonly used on the Internet.

It provides a message store that holds incoming e-mail until users log on and download it. POP3 is a simple system with little selectivity.

All pending messages and attachments are downloaded at the same time. You can add three more applications by entering their respective port numbers in these fields.

When you have finished making changes to this screen, click the Save Settings button to save the changes, or click the Cancel Changes button to undo your changes.

Gateway Access Local Gateway Access. The default username and password is admin. Select the number of the user from the drop-down menu.

Enter the default username, admin. It is recommended that you change the default username to one of your choice.

It is recommended that you change the default password, admin, to one of your choice. This feature allows you to access the Gateway from a remote location, via the Internet.

This feature allows you to manage the Gateway from a remote location via the Internet. To enable Remote Management, click Enable.

Enabling remote management allows anyone with your password to configure the Gateway from somewhere else on the Internet.

Enter the port number you will use to remotely access the Gateway. Specify the IP address es allowed to remotely manage the Gateway.

To allow all IP addresses with no restrictions, select All. To enable Remote Upgrade, click Enable. Enter the name of the Gateway. Enter the IP address of the remote host computer that will receive the trap messages.

To enable UPnP, click Enable. It also provides logs for VPN and firewall events. To enable log reporting, click Enabled.

Enter the IP Address of the computer that will receive logs. You will need Logviewer software to view these logs. This free software is available for download from www.

To enable E-Mail Alerts, click Enabled. Enter the number of Denial of Service attacks that will trigger an e-mail alert.

Enter the e-mail address that will receive alert logs. Enter the return address for the e-mail alerts. To view the logs, click the View Logs button.

A new screen will appear. From the drop-down menu, you can select which log you want to view. Enter the IP address that you want to ping.

Enter the size of the packet. Enter the number of times that you want to ping. Enter the ping interval how often the target IP address will be pinged in milliseconds.

Enter the ping timeout how long before the ping test times out in milliseconds. Click the Start Test button to start the Ping Test. The results of the ping test will be shown here.

Then follow the on-screen instructions. Then follow the on-screen instructions to locate the file. After you have selected the file, click the Restore button.

If you wish to restore the Gateway to its factory default settings and lose all your settings, click Yes. To begin the restore process, click the Save Settings button to save these changes, or click the Cancel Changes button to undo your changes.

The Firmware Upgrade Tab Figure Extract the file on your computer. Click the Browse button to find the firmware upgrade file.

Double-click the firmware file that you have downloaded and extracted. Click the Upgrade button, and follow the on-screen instructions.

To cancel the firmware upgrade, click the Cancel Upgrades button. In most cases you should use the hard reboot. The soft reboot is similar to restarting your computer without physically powering down the computer.

To reboot your Gateway, select Hard or Soft. Choose Hard to power cycle the Gateway or Soft. Reboot To begin the reboot process, click the Save Settings button.

When a screen appears asking you if you really want to reboot the Gateway, click OK. Click the Cancel Changes button if you want to cancel the reboot.

Internet Connection This section shows the following information: Click the Refresh button if you want to refresh the displayed information.

This data is stored in temporary memory and changes periodically. Click the Close button to return to the Local Network screen.

Local Network Click the Refresh button if you want to refresh the displayed information. Click the Wireless Clients Connected button to view a list of the wireless clients connected to the Gateway, along with their computer names, IP addresses, and MAC addresses.

Click the Close button to return to the Wireless screen. Networked Computers Chapter 5: DSL Status This section shows the following: PVC Connection This section displays the following information: DSL Connection Chapter 5: Troubleshooting This appendix consists of two parts: Read the descriptions below to help you solve your problems.

Common Problems and Solutions 1. I need to set a static IP address on a computer. You can assign a static IP address to a computer by performing the following steps: Click Start, Settings, and Control Panel.

Highlight it and click the Properties button. Enter a unique IP address that is not used by any other computer on the network connected to the Gateway.

Make sure that each IP address is unique for each computer or network device. Click the Gateway tab, and in the New Gateway prompt, enter Click the Add button to accept the entry.

Enter the Host and Domain names e. Restart the computer when asked. Double-click Network and Dial-Up Connections. Right-click the Local Area Connection that is associated with the Ethernet adapter you are using, and select the Properties option.

Select Use the following IP address option. Enter the Subnet Mask, Enter the Default Gateway, Contact your ISP or go on its website to find the information.

Restart the computer if asked. The following instructions assume you are running Windows XP with the default interface.

If you are using the Classic interface where the icons and menus look like previous Windows versions , please follow the instructions for Windows Click Start and Control Panel.

Click the Properties button. I want to test my Internet connection. For Windows 98, Me, , and XP: Make sure Obtain IP address automatically is selected in the settings.

For Windows NT 4. Double-click the Network icon. Open a command prompt. In the Open field, type in command. Press the Enter key or click the OK button.

In the Open field, type cmd. In the command prompt, type ping In the command prompt, type ping www. If you cannot open a webpage, try the ping command from a different computer to verify that your original computer is not the cause of the problem.

Try the ping command from a different computer to verify that your original computer is not the cause of the problem. I am not getting an IP address on the Internet with my Internet connection.

Make sure you are using the right Internet connection settings. Make sure you have the right cable. Turn off the computer and Gateway.

Wait 30 seconds, and then turn on the Gateway, and computer. I need to set a static IP address. AH has limitations due to occasional incompatibility with the NAT standard.

Y Y being any number from 1 to Note that each IP address must be unique within the network. I need to set up a server behind my Gateway and make it available to the public.

To use a server like a web, ftp, or mail server, you need to know the respective port numbers they are using. You can get more information by viewing the documentation provided with the server you installed.

We will be setting up web, ftp, and mail servers. Enter any name you want to use for the Customized Application.

Enter the External Port range of the service you are using. For example, if you have a web server, you would enter the range 80 to Enter the IP address of the computer or network device that you want the port server to go to.

Check the Enable option for the port services you want to use. Consider the example below: I need to set up online game hosting or use other Internet applications.

If you want to play online games or use Internet applications, most will work without doing any port forwarding or DMZ hosting.

There may be cases when you want to host an online game or Internet application. This would require you to set up the Gateway to deliver incoming packets or data to a specific computer.

This also applies to the Internet applications you are using. The best way to get the information on what port services to use is to go to the website of the online game or application you want to use.

Follow these steps to set up online game hosting or use a certain Internet application: For example, if you want to host Unreal Tournament UT , you would enter the range to If you are having difficulties getting any Internet game, server, or application to function properly, consider exposing one computer to the Internet using DeMilitarized Zone DMZ hosting.

This option is available when an application requires too many ports or when you are not sure which port services to use. Make sure you disable all the forwarding entries if you want to successfully use DMZ hosting, since forwarding has priority over DMZ hosting.

In other words, data that enters the Gateway will be checked first by the forwarding settings. If the port number that the data enters from does not have port forwarding, then the Gateway will send the data to whichever computer or network device you set for DMZ hosting.

Click Enabled and enter the IP of the computer. Check the Port Forwarding pages and disable or remove the entries you have entered for forwarding.

Keep this information in case you want to use it at a later time. I forgot my password, or the password prompt always appears when I am saving settings to the Gateway.

If you are still getting prompted for a password when saving settings, then perform the following steps: Enter a different password in the Gateway Password field, and enter the same password in the second field to confirm the password.

Click the Save Settings button. If you have proxy settings, you need to disable these on your computer. Because the Gateway is the gateway for the Internet connection, the computer does not need any proxy settings to gain access.

Please follow these directions to verify that you do not have any proxy settings and that the browser you use is set to connect directly to the LAN.

Click the Connections tab. Click the LAN settings button and remove anything that is checked. Click the OK button to go back to the previous screen.

Click the option Never dial a connection. This will remove any dial-up pop-ups for PPPoE users. Make sure you have Direct connection to the Internet selected on this screen.

Close all the windows to finish. To start over, I need to set the Gateway to factory default. Hold the Reset button for 10 seconds and then release it.

This will return the Internet settings, password, forwarding, and other settings on the Gateway to the factory default settings. In other words, the Gateway will revert to its original factory configuration.

I need to upgrade the firmware. In order to upgrade the firmware with the latest features, you need to go to the Linksys international website and download the latest firmware at www.

Go to the Linksys international website at http: Click the Products tab and select the Gateway. The upgrade could have failed for a number of reasons.

PPPoE is not actually a dedicated or always-on connection. This may not always work, so you may need to reestablish connection periodically.

To connect to the Gateway, go to the web browser, and enter http: Enter the username and password, if asked. Click the Status tab, and click the Connect button.

You may see the login status display as Connecting. Press the F5 key to refresh the screen, until you see the login status display as Connected.

Click the Save Settings button to continue. By default, the MTU is set automatically. Look for the MTU option, and select Manual.

In the Size field, enter Try this list of values, one value at a time, in this order, until your problem is solved: The Power LED flashes continuously.

The Power LED lights up when the device is first powered up. In the meantime, the system will boot up itself and check for proper operation.

After finishing the checking procedure, the LED remains steady to show that the system is working fine. If the LED continues to flash after this time, the device is not working properly.

Try to flash the firmware by assigning a static IP address to the computer, and then upgrade the firmware.

Try using the following settings, IP Address: Restart the computer that is having a problem. Ensure that it is connected and powered on.

Connect to it and check its settings. If you cannot connect to it, check the LAN and power connections. You can remove the Gateway to verify a direct connection.

Make sure that Internet Explorer is set to Never dial a connection. Make sure that Netscape Navigator is set to Direct connection to the Internet.

This is a hard refresh, which will force Windows Explorer to load new webpages, not cached ones. Click the Security tab. Click the Default level button.

Make sure the security level is Medium or lower. The Gateway will support up to IP addresses. Yes, it is a built-in feature that is enabled by default.

Where is the Gateway installed on the network? This adds a level of security since the address of a computer connected to the private LAN is never transmitted on the Internet.

The user may have many private addresses behind this single address provided by the ISP. Yes, but Linksys does not, at this time, provide technical support for setup, configuration or troubleshooting of any non-Windows operating systems.

Does the Gateway support ICQ send file? Yes, with the following fix: Then set the firewall time-out to 80 seconds in the firewall setting.

The Internet user can then send a file to a user behind the Gateway. What do I need to do? If you have a dedicated Unreal Tournament server running, you need to create a static IP for each of the LAN computers and forward ports , , , , , and to the IP address of the server.

If you want to use the UT Server Admin, forward another port. Port usually works well but is used for remote admin.

You may have to disable this. Then in the [UWeb. WebServer] section of the server. Can multiple gamers on the LAN get on one game server and play simultaneously with just one public IP address?

It depends on which network game or what kind of game server you are using. For example, Unreal Tournament supports multi-login with one public IP.

How do I get Half-Life: Team Fortress to work with the Gateway? The default client port for Half-Life is This lets multiple computers connect to the same server.

Just forward port to the local IP address of the server computer. Make sure that your proxy setting is disabled in the browser.

Check our website at www. If all else fails in the installation, what can I do? Reset your DSL modem by powering the unit off and then on. Obtain and flash the latest firmware release that is readily available on the Linksys international website, www.

How will I be notified of new Gateway firmware upgrades? All Linksys firmware upgrades are posted on the Linksys international website at www. Will the Gateway function in a Macintosh environment?

I am not able to get the web configuration screen for the Gateway. What can I do? You may have to remove the proxy settings on your Internet browser, e.

Check with your browser documentation, and make sure that your browser is set to connect directly and that any dial-up is disabled. What is DMZ Hosting?

How many ports can be simultaneously forwarded? Theoretically, the Gateway can establish sessions at the same time, but you can only forward 10 ranges of ports.

What are the advanced features of the Gateway? What is the maximum number of VPN sessions allowed by the Gateway? The maximum number depends on many factors.

Consult your ISP to obtain this information. Under the Port Forwarding tab, set port forwarding to for the computer on which you are using mIRC.

Can I run an application from a remote computer over the wireless network? This will depend on whether or not the application is designed to be used over a network.

What is the IEEE It is one of the IEEE standards for wireless networks. The product supports the following IEEE What is ad-hoc mode? When a wireless network is set to ad-hoc mode, the wireless-equipped computers are configured to communicate directly with each other, peer-to-peer without the use of an access point.

What is infrastructure mode? When a wireless network is set to infrastructure mode, the wireless network is configured to communicate with a network through a wireless access point.

Roaming is the ability of a portable computer user to communicate continuously while moving freely throughout an area greater than that covered by a single access point.

Before using the roaming function, the computer must make sure that it is the same channel number with the access point of dedicated coverage area.

To achieve true seamless connectivity, the wireless LAN must incorporate a number of different functions. Each node and access point, for example, must always acknowledge receipt of each message.

Each node must maintain contact with the wireless network even when not actually transmitting data. Achieving these functions simultaneously requires a dynamic RF networking technology that links access points and nodes.

First, it evaluates such factors as signal strength and quality, as well as the message load currently being carried by each access point and the distance of each access point to the wired backbone.

Based on that information, the node next selects the right access point and registers its address. Communications between end node and host computer can then be transmitted up and down the backbone.

When a node no longer receives acknowledgment from its original access point, it undertakes a new search.

Upon finding a new access point, it then re-registers, and the communication process continues. The FCC and their counterparts outside of the U.

Spectrum in the vicinity of 2. This presents a truly revolutionary opportunity to place convenient high-speed wireless capabilities in the hands of users around the globe.

What is Spread Spectrum? Spread Spectrum technology is a wideband radio frequency technique developed by the military for use in reliable, secure, mission-critical communications systems.

It is designed to trade off bandwidth efficiency for reliability, integrity, and security. In other words, more bandwidth is consumed than in the case of narrowband transmission, but the trade-off produces a signal that is, in effect, louder and thus easier to detect, provided that the receiver knows the parameters of the spread-spectrum signal being broadcast.

If a receiver is not tuned to the right frequency, a spread-spectrum signal looks like background noise. And what are their differences?

Frequency-Hopping Spread-Spectrum FHSS uses a narrowband carrier that changes frequency in a pattern that is known to both transmitter and receiver.

Properly synchronized, the net effect is to maintain a single logical channel. To an unintended receiver, FHSS appears to be short-duration impulse noise.

This bit pattern is called a chip or chipping code. The longer the chip, the greater the probability that the original data can be recovered.

Even if one or more bits in the chip are damaged during transmission, statistical techniques embedded in the radio can recover the original data without the need for retransmission.

To an unintended receiver, DSSS appears as low power wideband noise and is rejected ignored by most narrowband receivers. Will the information be intercepted while it is being transmitted through the air?

WLAN features two-fold protection in security. On the hardware side, as with Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum technology, it has the inherent security feature of scrambling.

What is a MAC Address? The Media Access Control MAC address is a unique number assigned by the manufacturer to any Ethernet networking device, such as a network adapter, that allows the network to identify it at the hardware level.

For all practical purposes, this number is usually permanent. Unlike IP addresses, which can change every time a computer logs onto the network, the MAC address of a device stays the same, making it a valuable identifier for the network.

Press the Reset button on the back panel for about ten seconds. This will reset the Gateway to its default settings. How do I resolve issues with signal loss?

There is no way to know the exact range of your wireless network without testing. Every obstacle placed between the Gateway and a wireless computer will create signal loss.

Lead glass, metal, concrete floors, water and walls will inhibit the signal and reduce range. Start with the Gateway and your wireless computer in the same room and move it away in small increments to determine the maximum range in your environment.

You may also try using different channels, as this may eliminate interference affecting only one channel. I have excellent signal strength, but I cannot see my network.

WEP is probably enabled on the Gateway, but not on your wireless adapter or vice versa. Verify that the same WEP keys and levels 64 or are being used on all nodes of your wireless network.

There are eleven available channels, ranging from 1 to 11, in North America. If your questions are not addressed here, refer to the Linksys international website, www.

Wireless Security Linksys wants to make wireless networking as safe and easy for you as possible. The current generation of Linksys products provide several network security features, but they require specific action on your part for implementation.

So, keep the following in mind whenever you are setting up or using your wireless network. Security Precautions The following is a complete list of security precautions to take at least steps 1 through 5 should be followed: Change the default SSID.

Change the default password for the Administrator account. Change the SSID periodically. Use the highest encryption algorithm possible.

Use WPA if it is available. Please note that this may reduce your network performance. Some of these security features are available only through the network gateway, router, or access point.

Change the WEP encryption keys periodically. Here are the steps you can take: Your network administrator is the only person who can change network settings.

So, make it harder for a hacker to get that information. There are several things to keep in mind about the SSID: Make it unique 3.

While this option may be more convenient, it allows anyone to log into your wireless network. Wireless networking products come with a default SSID set by the factory.

Hackers know these defaults and can check these against your network. Change your SSID to something unique and not something related to your company or the networking products you use.

Change your SSID regularly so that any hackers who have gained access to your wireless network will have to start from the beginning in trying to break in.

Enable MAC Address filtering. This makes it harder for a hacker to access your network with a random MAC Address. There are several ways that WEP can be maximized: Use the highest level of encryption possible 2.

Always remember that each device in your wireless network MUST use the same encryption method and encryption key or your wireless network will not function properly.

Two modes are available: Pre-Shared Key gives you a choice of two encryption methods: Last, enter a Group Key Renewal period, which instructs the device how often it should change the encryption keys.

These security recommendations should help keep your mind at ease while you are enjoying the most flexible and convenient technology Linksys has to offer.

Windows 98 or Me Instructions 1. Click Start and Run. In the Open field, enter winipcfg. Then press the Enter key or the OK button. IP Configuration Screen 3.

Write down the Adapter Address as shown on your computer screen see Figure C This is the MAC address for your Ethernet adapter and is shown in hexadecimal as a series of numbers and letters.

Your computer will show something different. Your computer may show something different. In the Open field, enter cmd. Then press the Enter key.

This appears as a series of numbers and letters. Click the Firmware Upgrade tab. Click the Browse button to find the extracted file, and then double-click it.

Firmware Upgrade Appendix D: Access Point - A device that allows wireless-equipped computers and other devices to communicate with a wired network.

Also used to expand the range of a wireless network. Adapter - A device that adds network functionality to your PC. Ad-hoc - A group of wireless devices communicating directly with each other peer-to-peer without the use of an access point.

Backbone - The part of a network that connects most of the systems and networks together, and handles the most data. Bandwidth - The transmission capacity of a given device or network.

Beacon Interval - Data transmitted on your wireless network that keeps the network synchronized. Bit - A binary digit. Boot - To start a device and cause it to start executing instructions.

Bridge - A device that connects different networks. Broadband - An always-on, fast Internet connection. Browser - An application program that provides a way to look at and interact with all the information on the World Wide Web.

Byte - A unit of data that is usually eight bits long Appendix E: Daisy Chain - A method used to connect devices in a series, one after the other.

Database - A collection of data that is organized so that its contents can easily be accessed, managed, and updated. Default Gateway - A device that forwards Internet traffic from your local area network.

Domain - A specific name for a network of computers. Download - To receive a file transmitted over a network. DSSS Direct-Sequence Spread-Spectrum - Frequency transmission with a redundant bit pattern resulting in a lower probability of information being lost in transit.

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Factors such as host-parasite interactions and more subtle pharmacodynamic effects of the drug are not taken into account. Nonetheless, the category resistant has a high predictive value, meaning that in such cases the treatment will almost invariably fail.

For isolates designated as susceptible, the same high predictability cannot be expected, as the response to antimicrobial treatment will depend on a variety of factors 6.

Interpretation of results from studies on prevalence of resistance As mentioned above, the clinician often has to rely on retrospective data at the time when therapy is initiated.

Unfortunately, the usefulness of data from published studies is hampered by inadequacies in study design. The methods and interpretive criteria used vary and comments on drug statistics are rarely included.

The inclusion and exclusion criteria for the isolates included may be reasonably well described, but criteria for sampling rarely are.

Most studies encompass results from samples sent to one or several laboratories for routine diagnostics. In such cases, resistance will be overestimated.

As an example, Holm and co-workers 7 reported a higher frequency percentage units of resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, tetracyclines and fusidic acid in isolates of staphylococci from recurrent pyoderma in dogs compared to primary cases.

The above mentioned problems have to be borne in mind when using published data as a basis for drug selection as well as when data from different studies are compared.

Resistance in percent of coagulase-positive staphylococci from skin lesions in dogs in Norway and Sweden 7,8,11 Antimicrobial Penicillin Cephalosporins2 Erythromycin Spiramycin Clindamycin Fusidic acid Chloramphenicol Tetracycline Trimetoprim-sulfonamides Gentamicin Norway No.

Acquired resistance to all these groups have been reported. Figures on prevalence of resistance in coagulase-positive staphylococci from dogs in Norway and Sweden are shown in Table I.

The fact that methods and interpretive criteria were not the same in the two studies should be borne in mind. Resistance to penicillinase-sensitive penicillins through production of beta-lactamase emerged long ago and is now widespread in most countries, including Norway and Sweden 8,9.

Special tests for beta-lactamase production may be of value when determining susceptibility as the gene conferring betalactamase production may be inducible 1.

Resistance to penicillinase-stable penicillins methicillin resistance in S. In a material including 91 strains of S.

The genotype of the resistant isolates was not investigated. Staphylococcal isolates with a high production of beta-lactamase may show a nonspecific resistanc to methicillin, i.

The phenotypically resistant strains have since been reanalysed 24 and further tested for the presence of the mec-gene. Methicillin resistance could not be confirmed in those strains unpublished observations.

Beta-lactamase-producing isolates that are sensitive to penicillinase-stable penicillins can be assumed to be susceptible to combinations of penicillin or ampicillin and beta-lactamase inhibitors such as clavulanic acid and cephalosporins.

The resistance gene may be inducible, in which case the phenotype will only express erythromycin resistance i. However, only one or two point mutations are needed to change the conformation of the gene to constitutive expression with complete cross resistance between macrolides and lincosamides It is important to bear this in mind when selecting antimicrobials for therapy.

A strain that is reported as resistant to erythromycin only is likely to carry an inducible erm-gene and may change to constitutive expression during therapy with other macrolides or lincosamides, leading to therapy failure.

In Sweden, a marked increase in tetracycline resistance was also noted Table I. This indicates that resistance genes to tetracycline and macrolides may be harboured on the same mobile element and co-selected for by either drug.

Streptococci Specific reports on canine or feline streptococci seem to be lacking. Streptococci are still uniformly susceptible to penicillins and cephalosporins.

Acquired resistance to macrolides and lincosamides occurs in Sweden, but the frequency is not known unpublished observations. As is the case in staphylococci, macrolide resistance in streptococci may be conferred by erm-genes with similar implications for interpretation of susceptibility tests and drug selection Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli E.

Acquired resistance to all mentioned antimicrobials has been reported. Multiresistant strains of E. The results of a study concerning frequency of resistance of bacteria isolated from Swedish dogs with urinary tract infection or pyometra are shown in Table II.

With the exception of tetracycline, the frequency of resistance in E. Similar data from Norway has not been found but it is reasonable to assume that the situation is comparable.

The gram-negative genus Pasteurella is unusual in the sense that included species are inherently suscep- tible to penicillin, although expected MIC values are somewhat higher than those of susceptible gram-positive bacteria.

They are also inherently susceptible to other beta-lactams, penicillinase-stable penicillins excluded, and to all the groups active against gramnegative bacteria.

They are resistant, or at best moderately susceptible, to most macrolides and lincosamides. No information on the situation in Norway or Sweden has been found.

Acquired resistance through production of beta-lactamases has been reported in Pasteurella spp. Bordetella bronchiseptica Data on susceptibility of B.

A marked difference between results for ampicillin and calvulanate potentiated amoxycillin was noted in both studies, indicating that part of the resistant isolates produced beta-lactamases.

Nosocomial infections Infections contracted in a hospital environment are likely to be caused by bacteria that are resistant to the antibiotics used in the specific environment.

As an example, a study in a human hospital showed that not only the patient treated with ampicillin, but also other patients in the ward experienced a higher risk of infections with ampicillin resistant bacteria The epidemiology of canine nosocomial and community acquired infections with Klebsiella pneumoniae have been described Twenty-three of 24 infected patients had received antibiotics prior Table II.

Resistance in percentage of isolates of E. The author notes that recommendations issued for control of similar infections in humans seem applicable to veterinary hospitals.

This includes reduced use of antibiotics prophylactically, hygienic measures and separation of susceptible and infected patients. Final comments A rational selection of antimicrobials aiming at maximum effect with minimum undesired side effects including selection of resistance depends on good quality data on prevalence of resistance at regional and national levels.

It is therefore somewhat disappointing that so little data can be found. Such studies should be conducted at regular intervals and information on negative trends should lead to reassessment of treatment preferences.

Methods for dilution antimicrobial susceptibility tests for bacteria that grow aerobically, M7-A4, approved standard. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, Performance standards for antimicrobial disk susceptibility tests M2-A6, approved standard.

Performance standards for antimicrobial disk and dilution susceptibility test for bacteria isolated from animals. Laboratory diagnosis of bacterial infections.

Clinical microbiology and infectious diseases of the dog and cat. Antimicrobial therapy in veterinary medicine. Iowa State University Press, Antibiotic susceptibility of staphylococci isolated in Swden from primary and recurring canine pyoderma.

The antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus species isolated from canine dermatitis. Veterinary Research Communications ;20 3: In vitro activity of fifteen antimicrobial agents against methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus intermedius.

Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics ;19 2: Distribution of genes encoding erythromycin ribosomal methylases and an erythromycin efflux pump in epidemiologically distinct groups of staphylococci.

Bacterial resistance to macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin antibiotics by target modification. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy ;35 7: Transferability of macrolide, lincomycin and streptogramin resistances between group A, B and D streptococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococus aureus.

Journal of bacteriology ; Multiple antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from the urine of dogs and cats with cystitis.

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association ; Antimicrobial susceptibility of selected infectious bacterial agents obtained from dogs.

Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association ;30 5: Antimicrobial susceptibility of Bordetella bronchiseptica isolates from cats and a comparison of the agar dilution and E-test methods.

Veterinary Microbiology ;54 1: A discrete-time model of the acquisition of antibiotic-resistant infections in hospitalized patients.

Veterinary nosocomial hospital-acquired Klebsiella infections. Antibiotic sensitivity of bacterial isolates from urinary tract infections and metritis in dogs.

Compendium of continuing education suppl ;18 2: The major route of transmission of resistant microorganisms from animals to man is thought to be the food chain 1.

However, small companion animals live in close contact with humans and exchange of resistant genes between pets and man cannot be excluded. Information about the prescription patterns of antibacterials to companion animals is therefore important, e.

Aim The aim of the present study is to compile the prescription patterns of antibacterial drugs to cats and dogs in Sweden and Norway during the s.

Material and methods Wholesaler statistics from both countries were used to monitor the sale of antibacterial drugs from to In Sweden and Norway, a selection of human antibacterial drugs approved also for cats and dogs are prescribed and sold by the pharmacies.

The use of such drugs in cats and dogs are therefore included in the wholesaler statistics of human drugs. In Sweden, all veterinary prescriptions handled by the pharmacies have been entered into a common data base system since January From this data base additional data were obtained from all veterinary prescriptions in Sweden in and on the number of prescriptions i.

The antibacterial drugs included in the study were classified according to the ATCvet classification system 2. In , seven preparations representing five active substances were approved for oral administration to cats and dogs.

The corresponding figures in were 15 and 11, respectively. In Norway, no similar trend was observed; eight preparations representing eight active substances were approved during the same period.

An increase in the use of beta-lactam drugs during the period was noted. This can partly be explained by the approval in of amoxicillin in combination with clavulanic acid.

However, the use of beta-lactam drugs was dominated by single substance preparations of ampicillin and amoxicillin. The amounts of sulfonamides used in combination with trimethoprim and of the quinolones were slightly increased during the study period.

The use of lincosamides, licensed during the study period, increased sharply. The corresponding figures in Norway are presented in Table II. The two dominating pharmacological groups used during the study period were trimethoprim or baquiloprim in combination with sulfonamides QJ01E , and the lincosamides QJ01F.

The beta-lactam drugs were introduced in and the sales figures of this group have since then increased, while the use of lincosamides has decreased.

In small animal practise, the usage of drugs approved for humans may, with regard to certain drugs, be extensive. The vast majority of prescribed antibacterial drugs in Sweden in and for systemic use in cats and dogs were approved for veterinary use.

Eighty-eight percent of the packets of antibacterial drugs prescribed for use in cats were approved veterinary drugs. Discussion Sweden and Norway have the advantage of having access to sale statistics of veterinary drugs from wholesalers.

This situation is unusual in most other European countries. In addition, detailed pharmacy sale statistics have been available in Sweden since This may be utilised to facilitate the interpre- 27 Bakgrundsdokumentation The prescription patterns of antibacterial drugs to cats and dogs in Sweden and Norway Table I.

In the present study prescription data from Sweden, sorted according to animal species, i. It is of great value is unable to study the prescription pattern of antibacterial drugs in one particular animal species.

This is important, not only in the surveillance of the usage of antibacterial drugs and of bacterial resistance, but also in other areas where exposure data is needed, e.

Wholesaler statistics have certain limitations that need to be focused on. When a drug is authorised for both veterinary and human use under the same brand name, i.

The consequence of this is that wholesaler statistics is not able to distinguish between drugs sold for human and veterinary use. Fucidin tablets and oral solution approved in Sweden and Calcipen tablets and solution approved in Norway are two examples of this.

To be able to identify whether the drug in question is used in humans or in veterinary patients it is ne- 72 0 61 12 9 18 69 1 0 79 16 28 69 1 0 21 34 cessary to look at each prescription.

When discussing trends in the use of antibacterial drugs in small companion animals it is also necessary to know the approximate population size of the animals of interest.

In Sweden, the amount of cats and dogs has been relatively stable during the nineties. In , the number of cats was 1.

The number of dogs appears to have increased somewhat from in to in 3,4. Corresponding data from Norway is not available. Comparisons between the amounts used in Sweden and Norway can therefore not be made.

From the Swedish prescription data it was clearly seen that the majority of the antibacterial drugs chosen by veterinarians was approved for veterinary use.

However, the opposite could also be found as for example with the cephalosporins, because of lack of approved specialities for veterinary use in the beginning of the study period.

However, this was not the situation in Norway, where the beta-lactam drugs were approved for veterinary use for the first time in Instead the sulfonamides group in combination with trimethoprim or baquiloprim QJ01E were the drugs of choice when prescribing an oral antibiotic to cats and dogs.

Impact of antibiotic use in animal feeding on resistance. Acknowledgement Apoteket AB, Sweden is acknowledged for providing sale statistics.

Antibakterielle legemidler som interfererer med bakteriell celleveggsyntese betalaktamantibiotika Penicilliner: Amoksicillin, ampicillin, fenoksymetylpenicillin, pivampicillin, prokainpenicillin.

Bakterienes cellevegg er bygget opp av peptidoglykan, en kjemisk forbindelse som ikke forekommer i eukaryote celler. Dette er bakgrunnen for den selektive toksisitet av betalaktamantibiotika.

Bakteriecellen lyserer etter at en inhibitor av et autolytisk enzym i celleveggen inaktiveres. Ingen betalaktamaseresistente penicilliner er godkjent for bruk til hund og katt, men det finnes godkjent en kombinasjon mellom et bredspektret penicillin amoksicillin og en betalaktamaseinhibitor klavulansyre.

Cefaleksin og cefadroksil er syrestabile cefalosporiner som er aktive overfor mange grampositive og noen gramnegative bakterier.

Sulfadiazin, sulfadimetoksin, sulfadoksin, sulfametizol, sulfametoksypyridazin. Denne forskjellen utnyttes for selektiv toksisitet. Sulfonamider er derivater av sulfanilamid, en strukturanalog av p-aminobenzosyre PABA som er utgangspunktet for syntese av folinsyre hos bakterier.

Sulfonamidene konkurrerer med PABA om et enzym som er involvert i folinsyresyntesen, dihydropteroatsyntetase. Sulfonamidene er bredspektrede og bakteriostatiske, og effekten er avhengig av at vertsorganismens immunapparat fungerer adekvat.

Denne omdannelsesvei er tilsynelatende identisk hos bakterier og pattedyrceller. Bakviloprim og trimetoprim er bredspektrede og bakteriostatiske.

Denne prosessen er prinsipielt identisk i bakterier og pattedyrceller. Det bakterielle enzymet er imidlertid strukturelt forskjellig fra det mammalske.

Selv om den presise virkningsmekanismen er uklar, inhiberer kinolonene selektivt det bakterielle enzymet og har bredspektret baktericid effekt.

Denne forskjellen i ribosomstruktur er grunnlaget for selektiv toksisitet for en rekke antibakterielle legemidler. Konkurranse med transfer-RNA for tilhefting til ribosomet oksytetracyklin, doksycyklin , unormal codon-: Andre antibakterielle legemidler Metronidazol er et nitroimidazol som hemmer syntesen av celleveggskomponenter, og har baktericid effekt overfor et bredt spektrum av anaerobe bakterier.

For baktericide substanser opprettholdes ikke alltid MIC-verdien i plasma, men til tross for dette kan det terapeutiske resultatet bli tilfredsstillende.

Noen unntak finnes dog tilgjengelige i litteraturen. Ampicillin og kloramfenikol kan tjene som eksempler. Dette gjenspeiles i doseringsanbefalingene.

I Sverige er den parenterale formuleringen godkjent til hund. Plasmaproteinbinding hos hund er ca. Ampicillin er godkjent til hund og katt i form av preparater til injeksjon N og peroral administrasjon S.

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